Natural life-like images
UltraHDTV, 8K-UHD plus High
Dynamic Range is a pipeline of competing formats and
specifications that must be carefully navigated. Lack of
compliance leads to blank, intermittent, noisy, or
downgraded images. Select the television, video
sources, and interconnecting cabling with care.
High Dynamic Range
High Dynamic Range (HDR) expands the difference between black
and the brightest white light. A grayscale that allows
for the simultaneous display of brighter-highlights and darker
shadow detail, with an expanded range of color. HDR is a
breakthrough that produces natural life-like images.
dynamic range is the initial step in this video
pipeline. However, HDR is available
in many formats. The video source HDR format
dictates the decode format required by the final pipeline
step, the TV or projector. The following lists the
current leading HDR formats.
HDR 10-bit color combines the SMPTE HDR & Consumer
Technology Association HDMI 2.0a standards. HDR10 is
the current de-facto baseline format for all UltraHD HDR
employs static gamma as opposed to the dynamic metadata
EOTF process used by more advanced formats.
Dolby Vision offers up to 12bit color.
(Although current TVs are limited to 10bit color.)
implemented, 12bit color will increase the color palette
from one to four billion colors.
also engages dynamic metadata EOTF frame by frame
Hybrid Log Gamma (HGL)
HGL is a metadata EOTF broadcast standard format
promoted by the BBC and NHK.
It is also backward compatible with older Standard
Dynamic Range (SDR) broadcasts.
HDR10+ upgrades HDR10 to EOTF correction as Dolby Vision
hidden HDR data that allows for a
simultaneous SDR and HDR broadcast.
SL-HDR2 is a HDR10 based format
that adds metadata EOTF.
SL-HDR3 is a HLG based format that
also adds metadata EOTF.
High Definition Multimedia Interface
This is the UltraHD HDR pipeline interconnect with
encryption that prevents copying.
Versions 1.2 to 2.1
All connected components and interconnects must meet the
HDMI is a system of
interconnect cable, dedicated termination, plus encryption
The HDMI software, embed in integrated chips, consists of
three types -- source, repeater, and sink.
Source data embeds in BluRay players, media severs, Internet
streaming devices, cable boxes, and satellite receivers.
Repeater data embeds in AV
receivers, plus any form of video switching.
Sink data embeds in televisions
Each HDMI chip rings software
in the next HDMI chip. If a source and sink HDMI
chip connect, then the chips ring and respond to each
other. If a repeater inserts between the source and
sink, then the repeater chip must also respond to the HDMI
source and sink.
Each HDMI chip seeks confirmation from all connected
devices. An incorrect response, negative handshake,
will result in noise, intermittent images, blank or
The following lists the
compatibility specifications of HDMI versions 1.4 through 2.1.
Each version is compatible with
the previous version.
HDMI 1.4 & 1.4a
- High Definition 1920 x 1080
- 18Gbps bandwidth with audio return and Ethernet channels.
- 1.4a adds 3D support.
'High Speed' cable
Adds Support for:
- UltraHD 3840 x 2160p resolution.
- 18Gbps @ 60fps
High Speed' cable.
Adds Support for HDR10
'Premium High Speed' cable.
Adds Support for:
- HGL HDR
Up to 32 channels digital audio.
Recommend 'Premium High
- UltraHD @ up to120fps
(120fps enables augmented reality)
UHD-8K @ 60fps
- 48Gbps bandwidth
- HDR 12bit Dolby Vision
- 192kHz 24bit audio (lossless DTS)
E-ARC (enhanced audio return channel)
use 'Ultra High Speed' cable.
The Gorilla in the Screen
jury is still out regarding final UltraHD/UHD-8K HDR
Component and interconnect compatibility is
poised to create custom installation havoc.
Therefore prepare installations with a three part plan.
1. Provide physical paths for upgrading cable.
2. Seek components that provide HDMI upgrades.
3. Inform early adopters they may have to replace key